I thought a magister was the foreign (see: Latin) name for a masters degree?
, PhD confers the title of Doctor to the recipient.
Professor in the UK is an title given by a university to it's most respected acidemics after years of work, teaching, study & research. Ones with years of study & teaching (in the States i think it means less, basically somebody who teaches undergrads will have a professor title).
In both though, it's basically a job title - not something gained by a set course.